Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell > Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Coastal Area Development Programme (CADP)

Project Location :

450 coastal villages of 9 districts namely Ahmedabad, Anand, Amreli, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Porbandar and Rajkot

Project Component :

Drinking water supply system, Environmental Sanitation, Roof-top Rain Water Harvesting structure, Solid Liquid Waste Management, Menstrual Health Management, Water Sanitation Hygiene (WASH) in Schools, Water quality monitoring and surveillance, Water Resource Development to strengthen source of Drinking water, Behaviour Change Communication with regards to WASH, Promotion of Point of Use purification methods for Drinking water.

Project Stakeholders :

Water and Sanitation Management Organization (WASMO) & Rural Development Department, Government of Gujarat; Tata Trusts, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, Collectives of Integrated Livelihoods (CInI), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd (GPPL), Coastal Gujarat Power Ltd (CGPL) and 6 Implementation Support Agencies (ISAs) and rural communities

Coastal Area Development Programme is a comprehensive multi-stakeholder programme aimed at ensuring both drinking water security and safe sanitation facilities in 450 coastal villages spread across 21 blocks of nine districts in the state. The project is being implemented directly by CSPC team at 4 clusters along with 6 addtional local organizations across these districts. The programme was jointly conceptualized and initiated by WASMO and CSPC, further corroborated by Rural Development Department, Government of Gujarat, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, GPPL, and CGPL.

Project Objectives :

The Objectives Of The Project Are As Follows :

  1. Provide for seasonal security and conservation of water resources with an integrated combination of pipe water supply and local, traditional water resources;
  2. Provide for a more hygienic household and community environment with sanitation improvement and increased hygiene awareness amongst the communities;
  3. Community managed implementation of water supply and sanitation improvements with facilitating inputs for community capacity building and empowerment;
  4. Provide institutional facilitating support for the community level groups through the independent implementing supporting agencies;
  5. Demonstrate the benefits and rational use of multiple source water supply using technological options and integrated community managed solutions;
  6. Ensure participation all sections of society, especially women at all levels of the decision making processes.

Drinking Water :

Water is the elixir of life. CADP plans to develop cost-effective and sustainable water supply facilities either by way of improvement of existing facilities; by setting up new facilities through a process of community consultation; collective action and technical facilitation. The major component of the Drinking Water works is to create sustainable and vibrant water committees in all villages which would be accountable to ensure regular and quality water supply to everyone in the village.

Environmental Sanitation :

Sanitation is an essential component of overall livelihood of the rural communities. As a part of project implementation strategy, it is planned to generate awareness amongst the communities regarding importance of safe sanitary practices, sanitation problems and its deficiencies and encourage them to construct toilets and to use it. CSPC aims to make all the project villages as Open Defecation Free (ODF) village. Similarly to Drinking water, the major component of the Sanitation works also is to operationalize vibrant Sanitation committees in all villages which would be accountable to ensure ODF status of the village.

Solid Liquid Waste Management :

There is no greater sight that seeing a clean village with no garbage or litter around. TWM team envisages to undertake Solid Waste Management (SWM) project to inculcate the habit of waste segregation at source and disposal at the designated spaces of the village, so that village remain clean always. The aim is to keep health hazards at bay by focusing on overall cleanliness in the village.

Menstrual Health Management:

There are age old taboos, stigma and negative beliefs attached to mensuration. The menstruating females have to undergo lot of difficulties during their periodic cycles, which eventually leads to unwanted health issues. Through series of trainings and behavior change communication, TWM envisages to educate the menstruating women and the male counterparts about science of Mensuration, the hygienic practices associated with it, disposal of the menstruation waste and also to break the negative beliefs around it.

Water Budgeting and Water Resource Development :

Water is the most expensive resource and it is getting constantly depleted because there is huge mismatch in the demand and supply of the same. TWM will undertake series of water budgeting exercises to enable the villagers to calculate the amount of water received from various sources like rains, groundwater, surface water, etc and amount of water gets utilized/exhausted in agriculture, domestic use, industrial use, evaporation, percolation, etc. Accordingly, the water management interventions will be designed towards equitable water balancing and usage in the village.

WASH in Schools:

TWM has plans to take up the interventions for repairs of dysfunctional Drinking Water Systems, repairs of Toilets for students, and develop the habit of proper Hand Washing among the students. The students will be provided by trainings and relevant IEC materials for inculcating good practices towards health and hygiene. It is hoped that the seed of good behavior sowed in School with children, will have ripple effect with their respective family members followed by society at large.

Controlling microbial contamination of drinking water at point of use:

It is a known fact that the Drinking water gets contaminated most adversely at the point of use since the user does not store or handle the water properly. This leads to consuming contaminated water and thereby resulting in water borne health hazards especially for vulnerable members of the family. In order to control microbial contamination, TWM team has plans for conducting series of BCC interventions of safe storage and handling of water along with promotion of low cost water purifiers as well.

Achievements of the Project till October 2017 :

A) Drinking Water Supply

  • Household tap connections increased from 6% to 83%, indicating huge investment by government and tremendous efforts by ISAs in ensuring village level storage and distribution network and water supply system in a participative manner.
  • Increased availability of water at household has reduced drudgery for women and saved productive hours of family members to great extent. Study shows that families fetching water from less than 200 mt have decreased from 63% to 9% with increase in household tap connections. Also, 77% families now spend less than 30 minutes to fetch water and number of families spending 30-60 minutes to fetch water has reduced from 65% to 17%. Overall, it added to well being and productivity[1]of families, also benefiting children.
  • According to household survey, 22% families have reported decrease in occurrence of water related diseases and corresponding savings of medical expenses.


  • RRWHS has largely provided much needed water security in remote villages, with availability of personal large storage tank. This has become an important asset for households as they use it has reduced burden on daily water fetching and uncertainty of availability of water. It has been great relief from drudgery for women. However, with availability of alternate water sources (like piped supply), very few families actually harvest rainwater in the tank for longer period. Most of the families use this tank for storage purpose only, refilling it with external sources rather than rainwater.
  • RRWHS were designed with elementary filter chamber to keep off the dust and provision of hand pump for fetching water from the tank. Interestingly, most of the houses use hand pumps but more than 50% households have not installed filter system with RRWHS. Only 10% households have functional filter, while 38% HHs surveyed have installed filter, but it is not functional. This may be because of lack of awareness on design of filter chamber or cost cutting by mason or owner.

C) Sanitation

  • The major push from government in recent years have surged in number of families having household toilets. This has definitely reduced open defecation to large extent in rural areas. However, there is still long way to go to ensure 100% usage and safe sanitation practices in villages. Declaration of ODF villages have not ensured actual abolishment of open defecation. In few instances, even toilet blocks, constructed with help of government subsidy are not used by households due to one or other reasons.
  • About 52% of toilets had bathroom units constructed along with toilet. This indicates that people have invested substantially in building these assets for them.
  • In most districts, beneficiaries have contributed through material, cash as well as through labour participation.
  • Hygiene practices like hand washing is largely prevalent among children and adults of the villages.
  • Common maintenance issues, which are also largely responsible for non usage of toilets by family members include incomplete toilets, missing or damaged doors, overflowing soak pits or septic tanks. Other than these, habitual preferences, particularly of old age people are also reason of non usage of toilets in many cases.

D) Institutional Sustainability   

  • The process of working through PaniSamiti was largely successful and fair amount of community participation have been ensured in villages. However, with passage of time, change in Samiti members and restructuring of Samiti has led to dilution of the concept and principles of community managed water supply system. As of now, 63% villages have functional PaniSamiti. In rest of the  villages, the management of water supply has been taken over by Panchayat body.
  • Interestingly over 70% of villages where PaniSamitis are active in collecting water dues from the villagers, the operation and maintenance cost of water supply system are met with collected amount. In rest of the villages, it is taken care by the Panchayats.