Drinking Water & Sanitation
Coastal Area Development Project
Project Location :
300 coastal villages of 9 districts namely Ahmedabad, Anand, Amreli, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Porbandar and Rajkot
Project Component :
Drinking water supply system, water resource development, environmental sanitation, roof-top rain water harvesting structure, water quality monitoring and surveillance
Project Stakeholders :
Water and Sanitation Management Organization & Rural Development Department, Government of Gujarat; Sir Ratan Tata Trust; Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and 10 Implementation Support Agencies (ISAs) and rural communities

Coastal Area Development Programme is a comprehensive multi-stakeholder programme aimed at ensuring both drinking water security and safe sanitation facilities in 300 coastal villages spread across 21 blocks of nine districts in the state. The project is being implemented by 10 local organizations across these districts, along with active community participation. The programme was jointly conceptualized and initiated by WASMO and CSPC, further collaborated by Rural Development Department, Government of Gujarat and US based Conrad N. Hilton Foundation.
Project Objectives :
The Objectives Of The Project Are As Follows :
  1. Provide for seasonal security and conservation of water resources with an integrated combination of pipe water supply and local, traditional water resources;
  2. Provide for a more hygienic household and community environment with sanitation improvement and increased hygiene awareness amongst the communities;
  3. Community managed implementation of water supply and sanitation improvements with facilitating inputs for community capacity building and empowerment;
  4. Provide institutional facilitating support for the community level groups through the independent implementing supporting agencies;
  5. Demonstrate the benefits and rational use of multiple source water supply using technological options and integrated community managed solutions;
  6. Ensure participation all sections of society, especially women at all levels of the decision making processes.
Drinking Water :
Water is the elixir of life. It was planned to develop cost-effective and sustainable water supply facilities either by way of improvement of existing facilities of by setting up new facilities through a process of community consultation, collection action and technical facilitation. A unique feature of scheme design under this project is that all schemes were designed with 70lpcd (instead of 40lpcd) service criteria and villages were endowed with matching storage capacity.

Water committee was formed in all the 300 villages; whereas DWSC approved around 251 schemes. Out of 300 villages, physical work was initiated in 234 villages.
Environmental Sanitation :
Sanitation is an essential component of overall livelihood of the rural communities. As a part of project implementation strategy, it was planned to generate awareness amongst the communities regarding importance of safe sanitary practices, sanitation problems and its deficiencies and encourage them to construct toilets and to use it. CSPC has succeeded in constructing more than 12,000 toilet units across 9 districts.

One of the major break-through CSPC could achieve for institutional restructuring was through elimination of multi-layer process of providing incentive support directly to beneficiary. The following chart A and chart B reflects the changes in the systems which has helped in expediting the implementation process at village level.

Chart – A : Conventional Fund Mobilisation System Under TSC/NBA:

Chart – B : Non-Conventional System Under CADP :

Water Resource Management :
Water resource development was taken up with an objective of ensuring sustainable drinking water source (mainly in no-source villages) in potential villages. The work relating to repair and reconstruction, construction of water harvesting structures which directly benefits the drinking water sources such as check dam, subsurface check dam, diversion channel, catchment improvements, deepening and de-silting of pond, etc. were taken up.
Water Quality Monitoring And Surveillance :
Salinity is a major cause of concern in coastal villages and in absence of any alternative safe source of drinking water; the communities have to consume saline water which leads to health issues mainly kidney stone and skin diseases. It has been observed that on an average, a household has to spend around Rs. 8,000 to Rs. 10,000/ year on health mitigation due to consumption of saline water. The rural communities are not aware about the quality of saline water and hence can’t make informed choice of source from where they need to collect water, even though safe water sources are available within a village. In view of creating awareness of safe drinking water, its impact on human health; ‘Mini Water Quality Laboratories’ are established at 5 different project locations for promoting water quality monitoring and surveillance. These laboratories are linked with the AKRSP (I)’s District level Laboratory established at Sayla, District: Surendranagar for providing backstopping support. The water quality laboratories are established at MAHITI, District: Ahmedabad; FES, District: Anand; ACF, District: Junagadh; AKRSP (I), District: Junagadh; and VRTI, District: Amreli. The laboratory undertakes water sampling and analysis of bacteriological and chemical parameters of water samples of CADP villages and other coastal villages on periodical basis and develops a detailed database.
Impact Assessment :
CSPC initiated impact assessment of interventions on drinking water and sanitation. Major findings of the impact assessment exercise are as follows:
  1. The HH water supply through tap connection has increased to 78%. Comparing the pre-project scenario with the current drinking water scenario, it is evident that dependence on local water sources has decreased (from average 80% to 60%).
  2. In 67% villages, water treatment like chlorination is done for water storage at community level.
  3. Drudgery for fetching water has reduced considerably in almost all villages due to increased HH tap connection.
  4. It is worth noticing that more than 12,000 sanitation units have been constructed till now. As per the study, about 60% of the families in the surveyed villages have constructed sanitation units. About 95% of the families that constructed sanitation units are using them.
  5. It was observed that improvement in health and hygiene is the most prominent motivational factor for construction of toilet among the families of the project area. Need of toilet for safety and privacy and dignity was a concern for about 60% of the households.
  6. Decision of construction of HH level toilet is mainly taken by men. However, it was observed in most of the villages, the demand of toilet was more among women, which has influenced the decision of men towards affirmative action.
  7. Almost 60% of the respondents have stated that there is reduction in vector menace in the village and neighborhood due to reduction in open defecation.